Selasa, 22 Disember 2009

Champadesa/Champa Nagara (चंपानगर)

(1st century CE – 1832)

The extent of Champa kingdom

The people of Champa are descendants of Malayo-Polynesian settlers who appear to have reached the Southeast Asian mainland from Borneo about the time of the Sa Huynh culture in the 1st and 2nd centuries B.C. The Champa kingdom that covered the present day southern Vietnam was part of the Malay civilization as reflected by the Malay characteristics in the culture of Cham people, notably in their language, literature and beliefs.

Cham language is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family and closely related to Achehnese and Malay language. From 15th century, the Malay language achieved a great influence throughout the Malay world including Champa, to the extent that the king of Cambodia also used Malay language as a diplomatic language with foreign powers like Portuguese and Dutch. According to a Dutch record, in 1680 the king of Champa, Po Saut sent a diplomatic letter in Malay language to Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) in Batavia. In the letter, he even referred to himself as “Paduka Seri Sultan”, a typical Malay royal title.

There are similarities between Cham decorative ornaments and those of the Malays, similarities in the way they dress, the types of attire and decorations such as the kelarai, songket and tengkolok. The headgear worn by Champa dignitaries in the 12th century was said to be very much like the Malay’s tengkolok. The various hairstyles sported by Malay women were very similar to Cham women during their heydays, notably the sanggul lintang, sanggul ekor kera, sanggul dua, and sanggul siput rendah.

Modern day Cham people

Champa was also said to have close historical relations with Malay people of Kelantan and many name of places, attire and decorations in Kelantan were adopted from Champa language. One type of kite-flying, a popular pastime in Kelantan, was named Wau Lenggang Kembayat (“Kembayat” is the Champa name mentioned in Syair Siti Zubaidah). The Kelantanese Malays also have what they call sutera chepa, tenun chepa, and keris chepa, which “chepa” is the corrupted version of “champa” in Kelantanese dialect. Malay titles like Nik and Wan used by many people in Patani, Kelantan and Terengganu were said to have originated from Champa and are still being used by certain royal families of Champa in Indo-China.

The Malay annals (Sejarah Melayu) mentioned Champa in several of its episodes related to some important events during the golden age of the Melaka Sultanate. According to the stories in the Annals, the relationship between Champa and Melaka began when a Champa prince, Shah Indera Berma, visited Melaka with his consort. They were welcomed by Sultan Mansur Shah who asked them to embrace Islam. The prince was then appointed a minister in the sultan’s court. In 1594, the Cham Lord, Po At even sent forces to assist the Johor Sultanate's (the successor of Melaka Sultanate) attack on Portuguese-occupied Melaka city.

Hikayat Hang Tuah tells a story about a kingdom, Inderapura (in Champa), which was constantly attacked by the people of Đi Vit until it fell in 1000 A.D. The Syair Siti Zubaidah Perang Cina also tells an almost similar story, but refer to Champa as the kingdom of Kambayat Negara. Another Malay manuscript, the Hikayat Raja Muda, mentions a kingdom called Cempaka Sari which was attacked and conquered.

Champa ruins

The Champa kingdom is reported to have left behind 206 inscriptions carved on stone, copper plates and other writing surfaces, 98 of which were in the Cham language, 43 in Sanskrit, 29 in both of these languages and 36 illegible. It also left behind a rich historical heritage, including artistically designed and architecturally marvellous temples of rich historical value which give credit to Malay culture and civilization.

13th Century Champa Twin Towers in Vijaya (modern day Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam).

According to Cham legend, Lady Po Nagar, or Leiou Ye, was the founder of the Cham nation. She was born into a farming family in the Dai An Mountains of the Khanh Hoa Province. With the help of the spirits, she sailed to China hidden on a piece of sandalwood. There, she married a royal heir and bore two children. After many years, she returned to her home and established a Cham nation there.

According to Chinese records, the kingdom of Champa was officially formed in the early 192 A.D. by King Sri Mara or Khu Lien, during the breakup of the Han dynasty of China. Gradually it came under Indian cultural influence, evolving into a decentralized country composed of four small states, named after regions of India, Amaravati (Quang Nam), Vijaya (Binh Dinh), Kauthara (Nha Trang), and Panduranga (Phan Rang). The four principalities had a powerful fleet that was used for commerce and for piracy. Within the four principalities there were two main clans: the "Dua" and the "Cau." The Dua lived in Amaravati and Vijaya while the Cau lived in Kauthara and Panduranga. The two clans differed in their customs and habits and conflicting interests led to many clashes and even war. But they usually managed to settle disagreements through intermarriage. The Cham people were finally united under the rule of King Bhadravarman around 400AD.

In retaliation for Cham raids on their coast, the Chinese invaded Champa in 446, bringing the region under their suzerainty once again. However, under a new dynasty in the 6th century, Champa threw off its allegiance to China and entered into an era of great independent prosperity and artistic achievements. From the 7th to the 10th century A.D., the Cham controlled the trade in spices and silk between China, India, the Malay islands, and the Abbassid caliphate. They supplemented their income from the trade routes not only by exporting ivory and aloe, but also by engaging in piracy and raiding.

In the late 8th century the Chams were distracted by attacks from Java, but in the 9th century they renewed their pressure on the Chinese provinces to the north and the growing Khmer Empire to the west. Under Indravarman II, who established the Indrapura dynasty in 875, the capital of the country was moved to the northern province of Amaravati, near present Hue, and elaborate palaces and temples were constructed. Champa reached its peak in civilization under the rule of this dynasty.

Factors contributing to the decline of Champa over the next several centuries include its enviable position along the trade routes, its relatively small population base, and its frequently antagonistic relations with its closest neighbours: the Đi Vit to the north and the Khmer to the west.

In the 10th century, the Vietnamese kingdom of Đi Vit, based in Hanoi, began to exert pressure on Champa, forcing it to relinquish Amaravati in 1000 and Vijaya in 1069. Harivarman IV, who founded the ninth Cham dynasty in 1074, was able to stave off further Viet and Cambodian attacks, but in 1145 the Khmers, under the aggressive leadership of Suryavarman II, invaded and conquered Champa. Two years later a new Cham king, Jaya Harivarman I, arose and threw off Khmer rule, and his successor sacked the Cambodian capital at Angkor in 1177. Between 1190 and 1220 the Chams again came under Cambodian suzerainty, and later in the 13th century they were attacked by the Tran kings of Viet, as well as by the Mongols in 1284.

This bas relief at the late 12th century Angkorian temple called the Bayon depicts Cham mariners in action against the Khmer.

By the late 15th century, incessant wars of aggression and defence had for all practical purposes wiped out the Champa kingdom; one by one their provinces were annexed. In 1471, in a reaction to a Cham raid against Hóa Châu, King Lê Thánh Tông of Đi Vit invaded Champa and sacked its capital, Vijaya. This was the final defeat of Champa, which then became separated principalities ruled by several Cham lords, and paying tributes to the Vietnamese kings. This defeat also caused the first major Cham emigration, particularly to Cambodia and Melaka.

In 1697, the southern principality of Panduranga became a vassal of the Vietnamese emperor. In 1700s, a Champa Muslim Lord, Pô Chien gathered his people and migrated south to Cambodia while those along the coastline migrated to the nearest Malay Peninsular state of Terengganu and Kelantan. Finally in 1832, the Vietnamese emperor Minh Mang annexed the remaining Cham territories.

Modern day Champa people make up a sizable minority in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Malaysia. Malaysian constitution recognises the Champa rights to Malaysian citizenship and their Bumiputera status.

Rajatiraja (King of Kings) of Champa. Some names are listed in Chinese, as per mentioned in Chinese records.


192- ?

Sri Mara

Khu Lien or Seri Mara was born in Tuong Lam, an area of tension between Han Dynasty and the natives of Lam Ap (the precursor to Champa). In 192 AD, he defeated the Chinese prefect and declared himself Raja (King) of Lam Ap. This is considered the official founding of Champa, though Cham legend dates the founding to be much earlier.

270 - 280

Fan Hsiung

In 270, T'ao Huang, the Chinese governor of Giao Chi, reported that Fan Hsiung was repeatedly assaulting his land with the aid of Funan.

284 - 336

Fan Yi

In 284, He sent the first Cham envoy to the Eastern Chin Emperor. He died in 336, and was succeeded by his commander in chief.


336 - 349

Fan Wen

He was the commander in chief to Fan Yi, and, after Fan Yi's death in 336, seized the throne. In 340, he sent an embassy to China to request the province of Giao Chi. His request was denied, and so Fan Wen recaptured Jen Nan in 347. He died two years later on another campaign.

349 - 380

Fan Fo

In 353, He was defeated by the Chinese governor of Giao Chi. The governor also recaptured Jen Nan, which was previously captured by Fan Fo’s predecessor, Fan Wen.

380 - 413

Bhadravarman I

Also known as Fan Hu Ta in Chinese chronicles, he was the first king acknowledged in the inscriptions. In 380, he moved the capital to Indrapura and ordered the construction of temples and palaces, all facing north, at My Son and Tra Kieu.

In 399, he went on a military campaign up north and succeeded in capturing the Vietnamese provinces of Nhat Nam and Cuu Chan. He continued on his temple-building campaign as well, building Cham towers along the coast up north. From 405 to 413, he continuously battled the Chinese governor Do Tue. However, at their last confrontation, he disappeared without a trace after being defeated by the governor.






Wen Ti


431- 455

Fan Yang Mai I

Following years of internal trouble, Fan Yang Mai overthrew the previous dynasty and seized the throne in 421. In 425, the Chinese invaded and defeated Champa and forced the Cham people to pay an annual tribute.


Fan Yang Mai II

In 431, the King was denied the aid of the King of Funan during a war with the Chinese governor of Chiao Chou. In 433, after being denied this territory, turned against the Khmers and annexed the Khmer district of Panduranga.

455 - 484

Fan Shen Ch’eng

484 - 492

Fan Tang Ken Ch’uan

492 - 502

Fan Chou Nong

502 - 510

Fan Wen Tsan

510 - 526


526 - 529



526 - 529

Rudravarman I

529 - ?


Inscriptions credit him with rehabilitating the temple to Bhadresvara after a fire. Sambhuvarman also sent delegations and tribute to China, and unsuccessfully invaded what is now northern Vietnam.

629 - 640


640 - 645


645 - ?


d - 653

Isanavarman (female)

653 - 686

Vikrantavarman I

Mentioned in My Son stone inscription dated 657 A.D. Claimed to be descended through his mother from the Brahman Kaundinya and the serpent princess Soma, the legendary ancestors of the Khmer of Cambodia.

686 - 731

Vikrantavarman II

731 - 758

Rudravarman II


(of Panduranga)

758 - 770


770 - 787


Pursued the Javanese raiders in 774 A.D. and defeated them in a naval battle.

787 - 803

Indravarman I

803 - 817

Harivarman I

817 - 854

Vikrantavarman III


(of Bhrigu)

854 – 898

Indravarman II

Founded a new northern dynasty at Indrapura and the first Cham monarch to adopt Mahayana Buddhism as an official religion.

898 – 903

Jaya Sinhavarman I

903 – 910

Jaya Saktivarman

910 – 918

Bhadravarman II

918 – 959

Indravarman III

959 – 965

Jaya Indravarman I

In 960, he sent a delegation with tribute to the first king of the Chinese Song Dynasty.

965 – 982

Paramesvaravarman I

Sent a fleet to attack Hoa Lu (modern day Hanoi) in 979 A.D.

982 – 986

Indravarman IV

986 - 989

Lieou Ki-Tsong, of Annam


989 - 999

Harivarman II

999 – 1007

Yan Pu Ku Vijaya

1007 – 1010

Harivarman III

1010 – 1018

Patamesvaravarman II

1018 – 1030

Vikrantavarman IV

1030 - 1044

Jaya Sinhavarman II

In 1044 A.D.,He was defeated and killed in a Dai Viet attack on the city of Vijaya


(of the south)

1044 - ?

Jaya Paramesvaravarman I

? – 1061

Bhadravarman III


Vijaya Rudravarman III

Attacked Dai Viet in 1068 A.D. in order to reverse the setbacks of 1044 A.D.



Harivarman IV

He restored the temples at My Son and ushered in a period of relative prosperity. He made peace with the Dai Viet, but provoked war with the Khmer of Angkor. Defeated the Khmer invaders in 1080 A.D.

1080-1081, 1086-1114

Jaya Indravarman II




Harivarman V


1139 - 1145

Jaya Indravarman III


1145 – 1147

Rudravarman IV (Khmer Vassal)

1147 – 1167

Jaya Harivarman I

Ruler of the southern principality of Panduranga, defeated the Khmers in 1149 A.D. and had himself consecrated king of kings in Vijaya.


Jaya Harivarman II

1167 – 1190

Jaya Indravarman IV

In 1177, his troops launched a surprise attack against the Khmer capital of Yasodharapura from warships piloted up the Mekong River to the great lake Tonle Sap in Cambodia. The invaders sacked the capital and killed the Khmer king.



Suryajayavarman (Khmer vassal in Vijaya)


Suryavarman (Khmer vassal in Pandurang)


Jaya Indravarman V (Khmer vassal in Vijaya)


Cam Bt thuc


Jaya Paramesvaravarman II


Jaya Indravarman VI

During his reign, the Mongols invaded Champa under commander Sogetu under Kublai Khan. Sogetu captured the port of Vijaya, but was defeated by Cham guerillas in the mountains.


Indravarman V

His reign began in 1265 by declining to give his respects in person to the Mongol Khan, Kublai Khan. He died, however, before he could face another wrath of Mongolia, leaving his son, Chế Mân, to face the challenge.


Jaya Sinhavarman III (Chế Mân)

The founder of the still extant temple of Po Klaung Garai in Panduranga, ceded two northern districts to the Dai Viet in exchange for the hand in marriage of a Viet princess.


Jaya Sinhavarman IV (Che Chi)


Che Nang (Annamite Vassal)

During his reign, he tried to conquer previously lost territories. In 1318, the Vietnamese king, Tran Minh Tong, dispatched generals Tran Quoc Chan and Pham Ngu Lao to defeat Che Nang. Che Nang was defeated and escaped to Java.



Chế A Nan


Trà Hoa B Đ


Chế Bng Nga (Che Bunga)

Also as known as the “Red king” in Vietnamese chronicles, He was the last strong king of Cham. He apparently managed to unite the Cham lands under his rule and by 1372 he was strong enough to attack and almost conquer Dai Viet from the sea.



Jaya Sinhavarman V (Ko Cheng)


Indravarman VI

After his father's death in 1440, Indravarman VI turned against the Khmers and succeeded in defeating its king, Ponhea Yat, causing the final desertion of Angkor. Now relieved from the threats of its neighbours, Champa entered a time of peace and spirituality. A new religion, Islam, was introduced by Muslim traders. However, this brought its consequences. The next time Annam would attack, Champa would not receive help from its former Buddhist and Hindu allies.


Maija Vijaya


Moho Kouei-Lai


Moho Kouei-Yeou



Moho P'an-Lo-Yue


P'an-Lo T'ou-Ts'iuan

In 1471, in a reaction to a Cham raid against Hóa Châu, king Lê Thánh Tông of Đai Viet invaded Champa and sacked its capital, Vijaya. This was the final defeat of Champa, which then became a minor Viet province ruled by several Cham lords, paying tributes to Nguyen lords.



Po Ro Me


Po Niga


Po Saut

Dynasty of Po Saktirai Da Putih, vassal Cham rulers under the Nguyen Lords


Po Saktirai da putih


Po Ganvuh da putih


Po Thuttirai




Po Rattirai


Po Tathun da moh-rai


Po Tithuntirai da paguh


Po Tithuntirai da parang




Chei Krei Brei


Po Tithun da parang


Po Lathun da paguh


Po Chong Chan

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where is stone letter ?

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